Most models have variable speeds, but the scroll saw is designed to cut precisely not quickly. Feed the wood to the saw flush to the saw table. Scroll saw blades are thin and easily broken, so take care not to bend, twist, or put too much pressure on the blade. Drill holes in the waste stock at the tightest corners to facilitate clean and neat cuts. The depth of the saw throat determines how large a piece of wood can be cut on a given saw; 16 inches is a common and generally useful size.
Learn woodworking from a home computer, tablet, or smartphone. Woodworking video lectures can be followed sequentially or in any order. The lectures can be repeated to reinforce what you have learned. Flexibility in learning allows you to speed your woodworking knowledge. Learning the essentials of woodworking accelerate your learning curve to become a woodworker
The most commonly purchased claw hammer is the 20 oz. size. It’s heavy enough to easily drive nails but easily manipulated when pulling nails. While wooden handles are picturesque, they may not stand up to the strain if you have to pull a lot of nails. Hammers with a steel handle, or even fiberglass, will be stronger. However, these won’t absorb the vibrations from driving nails the way a hickory handle will. You’ll also need to make sure the fiberglass and metal handles have a rubberized grip for control and comfort. If you’re going to be driving a lot of nails, the wooden handled hammer will be better for reducing stress on your hand, and wrist, too.
Although this universal admiration of hand skill is appreciated, the truth is, woodworking is no mystery. And fortunately, even if you missed out on taking a thorough shop class in high school and feel ill-equipped to tackle a simple woodworking project, it’s definitely not too late to learn. Here’s a list of some basic skills you would do well to develop. None of these skills require expensive, dangerous machinery or exotic tools. They are the foundational skills every woodworker should know.
Multiples of these bookcases can be connected to form a single, larger unit, generally for a built-in application. To do so, simply build them without a face frame, and finish boards that can be used to construct the face frame separately. Then, nail the face frame in place using brads after the cases are installed. To improve the appearance of the face frame joints using this approach, mill the rails (horizontal pieces) so that they are 1/8-in thinner than the stiles (vertical pieces). This creates a nice shadow line and conceals any unevenness at the joint. Also build a single long top to tie all the pieces together. I use plywood with biscuits to span beyond 8″, edge banded with hardwood strips as you have done for your shelves.
4. Selection of furniture plan: Before you start making furniture based on some plan, analyze it thoroughly. Make sure if the furniture plan has all the necessary dimensions and informations, and is it made properly. A bad and incomplete furniture plan will result in the poor quality of the final product and you will spend more money finishing it. If the dimensions of the furniture pieces do not match and you realize that only during its assemblage, you will have to throw away all the material, not to mention the time that you’ve lost with it… Choosing a quality furniture plan is another basic requirement to make the quality furniture.
The band saw is great for freehand and curved cutting, but its depth of cut also makes it suitable for sawing thick lumber. The table tilts on many models, allowing for angle cuts. Band saws come in many sizes but for most home workshops a good choice is a 12- or a 14- inch model (the dimension indicates the size of the workpiece that can be presented to the blade; a 12-inch band saw will saw to the center a 12-inch piece).

One great aspect of Teds Woodworking is that it is easy to understand! You will find all the projects and a way to learn how to build them with an easy step by step procedure. These plans and structures are already proven to work. Some guides out there will only give you lousy plans and waste your time. Teds Woodworking offers simple guides and schematics. This system has blueprints for almost everything you want to make. There are available blueprints from dog houses to green houses. Even instructions for building gazebos and guitars are easy to follow. The instructions on how to create children’s and baby cradles are carefully laid out in a way that you can easily build them right away.


Dust Collector. A dust collector works at the source of creation. It’s main purpose is to collect the dust right from the place you are cutting the wood. A lot of power tools come with a dust collector extension which allows the dust collector to be attached to them directly. This means a lot less cleaning up for you to do. Dust collectors come in two types, single bag and double bag. Single bag ones are more common.
I know this is an old forum topic, but I felt the need to chime in. I was in Jr. High back in the late 70s and my school had a wood shop and I still have a cutting board and a three leg single post foyer table made from those shops and very proud of them. It is sad seeing the lack of “hands on” classes these days in schools because of liability issues. Just recently got back into woodworking last year and honestly Marc has much to do with that and his YouTube videos, that and a date night where my wife and I went to a Woodcraft class for making pens. I plan on joining the guild at some point but wanted to get enough tools and skills together to make the guild worth it for me and I am almost there. I am currently working on the 2015 Kids Table from Woodworkers Fighting Cancer and will donate to them as well when I finish even though it is way past due it is the perfect project for my daughter. Since I started I have made pens, cutting boards, a toy airplane and now working on this table and love it. Thank you Marc for being such an influence on this community!!
Build your own platform bed frame at your home by following the source linked tutorial given above. The source link also includes more pictures that can help you to build a better bed frame. You can see a step by step set of instructions and guidelines to follow with real life pictures, as well as you can download a PDF file detailing the list of materials and tools you’ll need, know about the length of every board, and most importantly color-coded illustrations of the building process.
Woodworking was essential to the Romans. It provided, sometimes the only, material for buildings, transportation, tools, and household items. Wood also provided pipes, dye, waterproofing materials, and energy for heat.[5]:1Although most examples of Roman woodworking have been lost,[5]:2 the literary record preserved much of the contemporary knowledge. Vitruvius dedicates an entire chapter of his De architectura to timber, preserving many details.[6] Pliny, while not a botanist, dedicated six books of his Natural History to trees and woody plants which provides a wealth of information on trees and their uses
Handsaws (often called “panel saws”) are long, thin saws with a comfortable wooden handle. They are used for rough dimensioning of your lumber. Although a “panel saw” is technically a smaller handsaw that fits into the panel of a tool chest, I’ll hereafter refer to this type of saw as a “Panel Saw” to differentiate them from the broad category referred to as “hand saws”. Panel saws come in two tooth configurations: “Rip” (cuts along the grain…like a chisel) and “Cross Cut” (cuts across the grain…like a knife). You will need both.

Despite the popularity of plastics, MDF (medium density fiberboard) and other materials, wood is still the product of choice for most people when it comes to the expectation of quality, value, and utility.  Today, many wood products, such as musical instruments and furniture are mass-produced, but trained woodworkers make custom-made products with their hands and their tools based on drawings and architectural designs.
Any serious woodworker knows that square and flat Any serious woodworker knows that square and flat stock is the key to producing fine work so it’s time to skip the hand tools and graduate to the JJ-6HHDX 6 in. long bed jointer. This beast boasts a helical insert cutter head with staggered carbide inserts yet runs quietly and ...  More + Product Details Close 

Nightstands are just not big enough for everything: lamp, alarm clock, phone, photos of your kids … so books, magazines, your tablet or your cup of tea ends up on the floor. This shelf unit gives you about 10 times more space for decorative and essential stuff. And its dazzling design will transform your room. Best of all, it’s easy to build with basic tools.
Whether you are a beginner or a DIY professional, if you have a love for the craft of woodworking The Home Depot has got you covered. We have all the essential tools for woodworking that let you hone your craft. Our huge selection of drill presses and miter saws will put the power in your hands to complete your projects faster and easier. And whether you are looking for the strength of a powerful router or the versatility of a lathe, you can find everything you need to help with projects, large and small. If your carpentry plans also include building materials, you don't need to look any further than The Home Depot. From wood and lumber to decking and fencing materials, it's all right here.
The owners, webmasters, administrators, authors and editors, expressly disclaim all and any liability to any person, whether a user of this website or not, in respect of anything and of the consequences of anything done or omitted to be done by any such person in reliance, whether whole or partial, upon the whole or any part of the contents of this website. Please exercise caution when working with any tools or machinery. Follow common safety rules and precautions as outlined in any manuals related to the equipment being used. If advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional person should be sought.
· Each plan contains a clear and colourful scheme, so no guessing is required. It depends on the level of detail; the most demanding projects will take you to the park! If the instructions are clear, the project is built on its own. All pieces are “clicked” and put in place. It is also suitable for beginners. A skilled woodworker can complete the project in less time than usual ones.
9.  Hand tools and machines: In our furniture plans, you will find only dimensions of the furniture and directions for their construction; we do not suggest manufacture techniques. We recommend that you decide for yourself how you will make particular parts of the furniture – based on your experience, skills in specific techniques and operations and depending on the machines and tools that you got.
The band saw is great for freehand and curved cutting, but its depth of cut also makes it suitable for sawing thick lumber. The table tilts on many models, allowing for angle cuts. Band saws come in many sizes but for most home workshops a good choice is a 12- or a 14- inch model (the dimension indicates the size of the workpiece that can be presented to the blade; a 12-inch band saw will saw to the center a 12-inch piece).

Start by arranging all the parts on your work surface. Justin used a flux brush to spread the glue in the slots, and onto the biscuits after they were installed. Any small brush will work, though. When you have everything assembled, install clamps to hold the sides tight to the shelves while the glue dries. Check by using a framing square or by measuring diagonally from opposite corners to make sure the bookcase is square. Adjust it if needed. Then tighten the clamps. This is a good time to take a break while you let the glue dry for about an hour.
Check out our most recent woodworking tools and accessory reviews below. We have thousands of satisfied customers that use our router bits, shaper cutters, router tables, and many more fine woodworking tools every day. Take a minute to read what your fellow woodworkers have to say about their experience with our company and our quality woodworking tools. All reviews are from real customers of Infinity Tools who were polled by our partners at ShopperApproved.com. More third party reviews can be found at Shopper Approved's website.
These are without a doubt the most adorable things ever. The fact that you make them with coffee filters and they are cheap does not cloud my judgment, either. They are really easy to make though and so creative. These coffee filter pom poms would look so adorable hanging in a little girl’s bedroom or just anywhere that you want a bit of decoration. You can use them to decorate the deck for summer parties or make really large Christmas ornaments from them. Either way, you just need disposable coffee filters, some hot glue, sturdy cardboard and string and you can find the tutorial over at Bored & Crafty.
My basic advice is to develop lots of connections with people. Most branches of woodworking are hard to sell without knowing the right people – especially when targeting the luxury furnishings or corporate markets. I started down this path with the idea that I might own my own shop but forgot about that once I’d accepted employment in the field. Since I was satisfied working for others, I didn’t bother making the connections, and now I’m so busy it’s hard to get away from the shop long enough to do so. That’s not the end of the world, as we’re still pulling in plenty of work. It just took longer to get there than it should have. For those considering a self-employed woodworking career, it’s a good idea to meet individuals who associate with the types of people that are likely to become future clients. Word-of-mouth is still a powerful form of marketing even in this age of internet.
A very very interesting woodworking project you can undertake is to make spoons and ladles of all sizes out of wood. These items are really coming back in a big way. I sincerely feel you can attract a lot of attention and sell these items very well. People are beginning to use more wholesome utensils in the kitchens. Wooden spoons and ladles are going to be raging popular products. Getting a lathe will go a long way in making any kind of wood bowls, spoons and ladles.

DIY-minded folks, take note. The following websites are chock full of free plans to build tables, storage, beds — you name it. They'll give you the precise information and guidance you need to create furniture that's exactly what you want, for a lot less than what you'll find in stores. Bookmark these and return to them again and again as resources.
I generally use biscuits for this (three per joint), and I have never had a joint fail (and a bookcase spending five years in an elementary school is a pretty fair test), but dadoes work great here as well. To assist with accuracy and consistency when using biscuits, mark your biscuit locations on a piece of scrap, and then use the scrap as a guide as you mill biscuit slots in each carcass member. The carcass top is attached so that it is flush with the top of the carcass sides. The carcass bottom is attached so that the top of the panel is 2-1/2″ above the floor (or the bottom of the side panel).
I built my first bookcase in middle school. A multitiered assemblage of wooden planks laid across stacks of bricks, it was reminiscent of pieces from the early Flintstone Period--and I was proud to have made it myself. Since that masterpiece, I've built 50 or 60 more, most while working as a cabinetmaker for an interior design firm, where I learned the carpentry skills, design guidelines and construction techniques used in the bookcase shown here. Basically consisting of three plywood boxes fitted with a hardwood face frame, this piece looks built-in because it spans from wall to wall, and is trimmed with molding at the ceiling and floor. I used 3/4-in. birch plywood for the cases, 4/4 sustainably harvested African mahogany for the face frames and 3/4-in. mahogany plywood for the sides surrounding the doorway. With moderate skills and some patience, it wouldn't be hard to make this project fit any space.

Now install the vertical stiles. Hold each stile against the front edge of the bookcase sides, then transfer the biscuit­slot locations from the sides onto the stile. Cut slots using the biscuit joiner, apply glue to both surfaces, insert biscuits into the slots and press the stile home. Use a rubber mallet to tap it tight. Repeat the glue-and-­biscuit routine to attach the horizontal mahogany aprons to the shelves. Prior to installation, I routed a decorative profile along the bottom edge of each apron to create shadow lines that accentuate the shelves. The aprons are more than decorative, though. They stiffen the shelf to prevent sagging. Trim the top of the bookcase with crown molding [ 8 ] and the bottom with base molding [ 9 ]. Wait 8 to 10 hours for the glue to cure before filling the shelves.
Multiples of these bookcases can be connected to form a single, larger unit, generally for a built-in application. To do so, simply build them without a face frame, and finish boards that can be used to construct the face frame separately. Then, nail the face frame in place using brads after the cases are installed. To improve the appearance of the face frame joints using this approach, mill the rails (horizontal pieces) so that they are 1/8-in thinner than the stiles (vertical pieces). This creates a nice shadow line and conceals any unevenness at the joint. Also build a single long top to tie all the pieces together. I use plywood with biscuits to span beyond 8″, edge banded with hardwood strips as you have done for your shelves.

I’ve got a three other bits of advice: First of all, get really, really good at woodworking. There are lots of people who enjoy it as a hobby. To sell your services, you’ve got to be able to do far superior work or do it much faster than everyone else (preferably both). Failure to do so means competing against hundreds of amateurs who make things for the pleasure of it, then sell their work at cost to fund the hobby. Second, develop great people skills. Most professionals do custom work and few focus on selling a product. Most of them sell a service, and a big part of that is getting customers to enjoy the experience of collaborating with a woodworker to create their dream products. If your customers don’t like you, they can usually save time and money by getting something from an online catalog. People who buy handcrafted items from woodworkers are often attracted to the idea of supporting artisans. The face behind the work is important to them. Last, develop an iron-clad work ethic. In this field you’re directly trading time for money, and that time is very limited. It’s important to be productive, so try to get 40 hours of actual productivity (as in making things) every week. Accounting, phone conversations and social media marketing may be important, but none of them provide an actual paycheck, so they don’t count as productive work.
I learned the basics from J. Arthur Johnson when I was in 7th grade shop class . . . and I’ve been self-taught ever since. I do read Fine Woodworking (I have EVERY issue) and some books that my wife and friends have given me; and of COURSE Marc’s fine blog and a few other on-line sources but I don’t feel like I have really learned how to do anything until I’ve tried and failed and then re- and re-re-tried until I’ve made it work MY way.
The progenitors of Chinese woodworking are considered to be Lu Ban (魯班) and his wife Lady Yun, from the Spring and Autumn period. Lu Ban is said to have introduced the plane, chalk-line, and other tools to China. His teachings were supposedly left behind in the book Lu Ban Jing (魯班經, "Manuscript of Lu Ban"). Despite this, it is believed that the text was written some 1500 years after his death. This book is filled largely with descriptions of dimensions for use in building various items such as flower pots, tables, altars, etc., and also contains extensive instructions concerning Feng Shui. It mentions almost nothing of the intricate glue-less and nail-less joinery for which Chinese furniture was so famous.

I am finally getting to practice my woodworking more after years of collecting tools. By using tool reviews and thinking of the kind of work I would like to do, I have accumulated a nice set of tools without purchasing many mistakes. I decided to use Paul Sellers book and videos and start learning from the beginning. He starts with projects that begin with a small set of tools. One of those tools is a spokeshave. Even though I know much of what is in the first lessons, I have picked up a few new tricks, and am learning to use my tools more efficiently. My most important tools are my workbench and vise. The workbench was tough to build as I was on the floor using hand planes; not a good way to work. I have no jointer; did get a small planer and made a sled for it so I can flatten a board. My tools are in my house, so there is no room for a big table saw or bandsaw. I have a chopsaw and a piece of an old Craftsman tablesaw I got for free. It has to be moved outside to use. A circular saw with a guide is handy. My guide has a plate on which the saw is mounted. The plate slides on aluminum angle (with help of rollers) which is screwed to plywood. Once the initial cut is made in the plywood, the plywood is simply lined up with your cut marks and clamped down.


Hi, Patrick. “When I get home, if I need to crosscut the 18×8 piece, is that possible on a cabinet saw with a crosscut sled or better with a track saw?” That is possible to do on either a cabinet saw or a track saw, and you can end up with the same result. If I were doing this in my shop I would do it on my table saw because I have one and it would be a quicker setup, but if I didn’t have a table saw I would use a track saw. I have a friend who builds beautiful furniture and cabinetry with a track saw, and he doesn’t feel that it limits what he can build.
Hi, Patrick. “When I get home, if I need to crosscut the 18×8 piece, is that possible on a cabinet saw with a crosscut sled or better with a track saw?” That is possible to do on either a cabinet saw or a track saw, and you can end up with the same result. If I were doing this in my shop I would do it on my table saw because I have one and it would be a quicker setup, but if I didn’t have a table saw I would use a track saw. I have a friend who builds beautiful furniture and cabinetry with a track saw, and he doesn’t feel that it limits what he can build.
Make It: Paint four clothespins black. Thread a 4-inch-long black chenille stems through the two holes of a large black button. Twist and curl the ends of chenille stems where they meet to form antennae. Glue googly eyes just below the antennae. Next, cut three 3-inch pieces of black stems for each ant. Have your child help you thread all three though the spring hole in each clothespin and adjust to form the legs. Glue the face and two more black buttons to the top of each clothespin. Then use the clips to secure your tablecloth, and enjoy a carefree meal in the summer sun.
Having swing in your own home, yard or garden can be so de-stressing and be relaxing a thing to enjoy, that doesn’t matter you have a big yard or patio, or vacant porch. Kids will surely fall in love with this swing porch and love playing on a breezy day. Even, adults also do relax and enjoy a quite morning coffee, or just being embraced by the sun in the swing. 

Place the holes 2-1/2″ from the front and back edges. Use a jig to get the appropriate vertical spacing (I like to place them 1″ to 1-1/4″ apart vertically which gives great flexibility for shelf placement), and a solid depth stop so that you don’t blow through the sides of your bookcase. If you accidentally go all the way through the plywood, plug it with a dowel to hide the error, and then re-drill. I recently broke down and bought a fancy jig and drill bit for this operation, but I have drilled many shelf pin holes using pegboard as a spacer jig. The only downside to doing so is that the holes can become sloppy with repeated use, leading to wobbly shelves.
Someone interested in woodworking now needs to get computer training to be able to lay out jobs on a CAD program. CNC machines are also used in shops where they lay out the cabinetry for you and cut the parts. Working with these machines takes skill in knowing how to build the cabinet and knowing how to use the computer programs. Also, math is used all day, every day in woodworking, and the better you are at math the better you can build things.
Hey there! My name is Emma Clark, a part-time interior designer and full-time mom of one pretty little lady. This blog is the fruit of my extensive experiences as an interior designer and home improvement enthusiast. More so, I'm here to share with you a lot of great ideas on what YOU can do to make your home into a masterpiece: all cost-effective and amazingly creative.

The Lead Instructor for the course is Aled Lewis. You can see Fine Woodworking's video about Aled here. For each project, Aled is joined by a co-teacher who specializes in the relevant skills. The following list is subject to change. Most of the instructors have websites which you can visit for more extensive views of their work. See the list of instructors here.
Table saws, band saws, and radial-arm saws are examples of woodworking machines that are most often used exclusively in a wood shop because they are far too large and cumbersome to be portable. Even though they're confined to the shop, these workhorses are so useful that it makes sense to complete a woodworking project in the shop and carry the finished piece to the location or job site where it will be used or installed.
9.  Hand tools and machines: In our furniture plans, you will find only dimensions of the furniture and directions for their construction; we do not suggest manufacture techniques. We recommend that you decide for yourself how you will make particular parts of the furniture – based on your experience, skills in specific techniques and operations and depending on the machines and tools that you got.
Getting started in woodworking can seem like a daunting task. From specialty woodworking tools to identifying and understanding the different types of wood, there is so much to know that even the old-timers are still developing. But learning and experimenting are what woodworking is all about. Get started on the right foot with some essential basics about safety, tools, lumber, and traditional layout and measuring techniques.
Teds woodworking іѕ trying to prevent ԁο-it-yourselfers from continuing to learn it the hard way bесаυѕе anyone who іѕ not a professional carpenter аnԁ hаѕ tried tο complete a woodworking project hаѕ learned that mistakes саn bе expensive. Thе package includes over 16,000 projects, which аrе аƖƖ conveniently delivered іn a digital format. When selecting a project frοm the database, one саn bеɡіn bу first reviewing the detailed material list аnԁ tool guide fοr that specific project. Ted takes the guesswork out οf having tο estimate wood required tο complete a project bесаυѕе even аѕ a professional carpenter fοr 36 years hе felt frustrated bу the guess work required wіth οthеr blue prints. Mοѕt blue prints οn the market today аrе difficult tο read аnԁ harder tο follow. Sadly, many woodworking reference books contain project plans that wіƖƖ result іn frustrating аnԁ incomplete woodworking projects. Teds Woodworking works bесаυѕе іt simplifies the process аnԁ gives information suitable tο аƖƖ levels οf carpentry experience.
This plan is probably the easiest plan ever added in the list. The one who is working on this project, don’t need any professional skills but just knowing some basics of woodworking will be enough for this DIY. You will get step by step detailed process of this tutorial in the source linked tutorial. This tutorial will surely help you to build this plan quickly.

Although this universal admiration of hand skill is appreciated, the truth is, woodworking is no mystery. And fortunately, even if you missed out on taking a thorough shop class in high school and feel ill-equipped to tackle a simple woodworking project, it’s definitely not too late to learn. Here’s a list of some basic skills you would do well to develop. None of these skills require expensive, dangerous machinery or exotic tools. They are the foundational skills every woodworker should know.

I was self taught meaning I gleaned anything and everything I could from books,DVD’s,TV shows like Norm,Roy Underhill and any where else I could pick up information.Even though I had more than 20 years of woodworking I have in the last few years I’ve found a mentor in Charles Neil and now subscribe to his on line Mastering woodworking show. As to taking a class I’m a bit prejudice since I teach a community collage class on woodworking I highly recommend that you take any classes you can afford.


Kids love DIY projects, especially when they get to give those projects away as gifts. You can help your little ones to make a great picture frame for Father’s Day with just a few twigs and a hot glue gun. Just glue the twigs to the frame and let the kids decorate however they want. Use burlap for the matting and add a special message with a Sharpie.
!function(e){function n(t){if(r[t])return r[t].exports;var i=r[t]={i:t,l:!1,exports:{}};return e[t].call(i.exports,i,i.exports,n),i.l=!0,i.exports}var t=window.webpackJsonp;window.webpackJsonp=function(n,r,o){for(var s,a,u=0,l=[];u1)for(var t=1;td)return!1;if(p>f)return!1;var e=window.require.hasModule("shared/browser")&&window.require("shared/browser");return!e||!e.opera}function a(){var e="";return"quora.com"==window.Q.subdomainSuffix&&(e+=[window.location.protocol,"//log.quora.com"].join("")),e+="/ajax/log_errors_3RD_PARTY_POST"}function u(){var e=o(h);h=[],0!==e.length&&c(a(),{revision:window.Q.revision,errors:JSON.stringify(e)})}var l=t("./third_party/tracekit.js"),c=t("./shared/basicrpc.js").rpc;l.remoteFetching=!1,l.collectWindowErrors=!0,l.report.subscribe(r);var f=10,d=window.Q&&window.Q.errorSamplingRate||1,h=[],p=0,m=i(u,1e3),w=window.console&&!(window.NODE_JS&&window.UNIT_TEST);n.report=function(e){try{w&&console.error(e.stack||e),l.report(e)}catch(e){}};var y=function(e,n,t){r({name:n,message:t,source:e,stack:l.computeStackTrace.ofCaller().stack||[]}),w&&console.error(t)};n.logJsError=y.bind(null,"js"),n.logMobileJsError=y.bind(null,"mobile_js")},"./shared/globals.js":function(e,n,t){var r=t("./shared/links.js");(window.Q=window.Q||{}).openUrl=function(e,n){var t=e.href;return r.linkClicked(t,n),window.open(t).opener=null,!1}},"./shared/links.js":function(e,n){var t=[];n.onLinkClick=function(e){t.push(e)},n.linkClicked=function(e,n){for(var r=0;r>>0;if("function"!=typeof e)throw new TypeError;for(arguments.length>1&&(t=n),r=0;r>>0,r=arguments.length>=2?arguments[1]:void 0,i=0;i>>0;if(0===i)return-1;var o=+n||0;if(Math.abs(o)===Infinity&&(o=0),o>=i)return-1;for(t=Math.max(o>=0?o:i-Math.abs(o),0);t>>0;if("function"!=typeof e)throw new TypeError(e+" is not a function");for(arguments.length>1&&(t=n),r=0;r>>0;if("function"!=typeof e)throw new TypeError(e+" is not a function");for(arguments.length>1&&(t=n),r=new Array(s),i=0;i>>0;if("function"!=typeof e)throw new TypeError;for(var r=[],i=arguments.length>=2?arguments[1]:void 0,o=0;o>>0,i=0;if(2==arguments.length)n=arguments[1];else{for(;i=r)throw new TypeError("Reduce of empty array with no initial value");n=t[i++]}for(;i>>0;if(0===i)return-1;for(n=i-1,arguments.length>1&&(n=Number(arguments[1]),n!=n?n=0:0!==n&&n!=1/0&&n!=-1/0&&(n=(n>0||-1)*Math.floor(Math.abs(n)))),t=n>=0?Math.min(n,i-1):i-Math.abs(n);t>=0;t--)if(t in r&&r[t]===e)return t;return-1};t(Array.prototype,"lastIndexOf",c)}if(!Array.prototype.includes){var f=function(e){"use strict";if(null==this)throw new TypeError("Array.prototype.includes called on null or undefined");var n=Object(this),t=parseInt(n.length,10)||0;if(0===t)return!1;var r,i=parseInt(arguments[1],10)||0;i>=0?r=i:(r=t+i)<0&&(r=0);for(var o;r
Another fine example of remodelling furniture and re-using what already exists in the house.  The bookcase involves using your old kitchen cabinets, and building new shelves on top of them. The final product can also be used as an entertainment unit, housing a television, books and things of your interest along with ample storage to keep other utility objects.
×